Normally open five-card majors in all seats.
Open the higher of long suits of equal length: 5-5 or 6-6.
Normally open 1D with 4-4 in the minors.
Normally open 1C with 3-3 in the minors.
Notrump openings show a balanced hand and can be made with a five-card major or minor suit.

Strong artificial 2C opening.
Weak two-bids in diamonds, hearts and spades.

Responses to 1C / 1D
Responses to 1H / 1S
Further after opening on 1-level
Responses and later bidding after a 15-17 opening
2C opening, responses and later bidding:
Sequence after a weak two-bid of 2D,2H or 2S
Responses to a 2NT or 3NT opening
Defensive bidding
Competitive bidding
Slam bidding

Responses to 1C / 1D

A 1D opener suggests a four-card or longer suit, since 1C is preferred on hands where a three-card minor suit must be opened. The exception is a hand with 4-4-3-2 shape: four spades, four hearts, three diamonds, and two clubs, which should be opened 1D.

Responses to 1H / 1S

1H and 1S openings show a five-card or longer suit.

Further after opening on 1-level

Opener's rebids are natural and standard. 

Rebids with a minimum hand (13-16 points):

Rebids with a medium hand (17-18) points:

With a maximum hand (19-21 or 22 points): 

opener must make a very strong rebid:

Subsequent bidding by responder:

If responder has bid a suit at the one level, he next determines whether he wishes to sign off in a partscore, invite game, sign off in game, or force to game and get more information about opener's hand. Having made his choice, he selects the best available bid.

Bids available for signoff in partscore: Pass, 1NT, 2 of a previously bid suit.

Bids available for inviting game: 2NT, 3 of a previously bid suit:

Second-round forcing bids. A new suit response (other than after a 1NT rebid by opener) is a one-round force. If it is a fourth suit in the auction, it may be artificial.

Second round forcing bids following a 1NT rebid by opener: A reverse or jump shift into a new suit is a game force.

Bids available for signing off in game. 3NT, 4H, 4S, 5C, 5S.

If responder initially bids a new suit at the two level, the same rules apply EXCEPT that a subsequent jump raise of opener's first suit to the THREE LEVEL is game forcing (responder should make a limit raise directly over the opening with 10-12 points and at least three-card support):

NOTE: Responder promises to bid again if he responded with a new suit at the two level unless opener's rebid is at the game level.

Responses and later bidding after a 15-17 opening: 

2C is "non-forcing" Stayman, meaning that the bidding can stop in two of a suit. Opener bids 2H with 4-4 in the majors. If responder rebids three of either minor, he is showing slam interest and at least a five-card suit.

Jacoby transfers showing a five-card suit are used for the majors: 2D is a transfer to hearts, 2H is a transfer to spades. Opener accepts the transfer though he can jump to the three level with 17 points and four-card support for responder's major, for example:

If, after the transfer is accepted, responder bids a new suit, that is natural and game forcing. Possible calls after the accepted transfer are:

1NT - 2H
2S - ?

A 2S response requires the 1NT bidder to rebid 3C, which can be passed with a club bust, or responder can rebid 3C with a diamond bust. Example:

1NT - 2S
3C - ?

Other responses to 1NT:

1NT - ?

A direct raise of 1NT to 4NT is natural and invites 6NT. 4NT is slam invitational only because 4C is available as Gerber.


Interference after 1NT opening bids:

If the opponents double, all conventional responses are "on." 

If the opponents bid over your 1NT opener, Stayman and transfers are "off." Bids are natural except for a cuebid, which can be used with game force strength as a substitute for Stayman.

If the opponents intervene over a conventional response, bids carry the same meaning as if there were no intervention. A bid says, "I'm bidding voluntarily, so I have a real fit with you."

2C opening, responses and later bidding:  

2C opening shows at least 22+ points, or the playing equivalent. Responses:

If opener rebids 2NT after a 2D response (showing 22-24 points), the same responses are used as over a 2NT opening:

If opener rebids a suit over a 2D response, the bidding is forcing to 3 of opener's major or 4 of opener's minor.

2C - 2D
2H - 2S
3H = not forcing.

Sequence after a weak two-bid of 2D,2H or 2S:

Weak two-bids show a six-card suit of reasonable quality and 5-11 HCP. On rare occasions it may be a very good five-card suit. It is possible to open a weak two with a poor seven-card suit (not good enough to open with at the three level). Responses:

With no fit for responder's suit, opener rebids:

Responses to a 2NT or 3NT opening:

Stayman and Jacoby transfers for the majors are used.

2NT - ? 3NT - ?

Defensive bidding:

Overcalls show 8-16 points (double and bid the long suit with a stronger hand). The only forcing response is a cuebid of opener's suit, asking the overcaller about the quality of his overcall:

(1D) - 1S - (Pa) - 2D
(Pa) - 2S = minimum overcall.
         - other = extra strength (11 or 12 points minimum).

A 1NT overcall shows 15-18 points and a balanced hand (preferably a stopper in opener's suit). No artificial responses are used to the 1NT overcall except 2C, which is Stayman.

A jump overcall of 2NT shows at least 5-5 in the lower two unbid suits.

Jump overcalls are preemptive, showing the same values as an opening bid at the same level:

(1D) - 2S = a hand that would open a weak two-bid in spades.
       - 3C = a hand that would open 3C.

A cuebid overcall when the opponents have bid two suits is natural in either suit.

A cuebid overcall, when the opponents have bid only one suit, is a Michaels cuebid, showing a 5-5 two-suiter (or more distributional).

Reopening bids mean much the same as direct seat bids, though they can be lighter at the minimum end. A reopening 1NT after an opponent has opened shows 10-15 points. This is a wide range but there will not usually be a game on for you.

Doubles are for takeout over opening partscore bids (4 D or lower); penalty over opening game bids (4H or higher). A below-game jump response to a takeout double is invitational. To force, responder cuebids opener's suit.

Versus opening preempts, overcalls in suits or notrump are natural; cuebids are Michaels.

Competitive bidding:

There is almost an endless variety of possible sequences, so it pays to have simple guidelines to prevent bidding misunderstandings:

Bids mean the same thing they meant without the intervening bid. However it is sometimes necessary to pick a bid that would normally have been a second choice without the overcall:

1D - (Pa) - 1S - (2C)
2S; with  J43, A875, AQJ4, J3 (rebid 1NT if RHO has passed).

Cuebidding RHO's suit shows values for game without clear direction for the moment. This is often used to show a game-forcing raise:

1S - (2C) - 3C = game force; usually a raise.

Negative doubles are used through 2S promising four cards (at least) in any unbid major. Bidding a major at the two level or higher shows 11 or more points and a five-card or longer suit.

  • 1C - (1D) - Double = 4-4 or better in the majors.
  • 1D - (1H) - Double = exactly four spades (1S promises five).
  • 1D - (1S) - Double = four hearts and 6+ points or five hearts and 5-10 points.

If RHO makes a takeout double:

1D - (Do) - 1H, 1S = forcing, point count not limited.
                 - 2C = non-forcing (6-10 points, usually a six-card suit).
                 - 2NT = limit raise (at least 10 points) -- or better.
                 - Redouble = 10 points or more, but it is better to make a more descriptive bid of 1H, 1S, or                    2NT with the appropriate hand.
                 - 3D = Preemptive, good trump support but fewer than 10 points.

A responder's jump shift after a double is to play:

1D - (Do) - 2H, 2S, 3C = six-plus-card suit, like a weak two-bid or preemptive three-bid.

A redouble can have one of three meanings:
To play if:

  • Your side is at the four level or higher: 4S - (Do) - Redouble = Penalty:
  • The opponents double an artificial bid: 1NT - (Pa) - 2D - (Do) - Redouble = Penalty. good diamond suit;

A good hand if their double is for takeout:

  • 1S - (Do) - Redouble = 10+ points;

SOS, requesting a different suit, if your side is doubled for penalty in a trump suit at the three level or lower:

1D - (Pa) - Pass - (Do)
Pa - (Pa) - Redouble = SOS, responder can support at least two of the unbid suits.

Unless otherwise noted elsewhere, any bid or double by the opponents cancels a convention intended for non-competitive sequences.

1H - (1S) - 2NT = Natural (12-14 HCP).
2C - (Do) - 2D = Natural and Positive.

If the opponents use a convention (such as Michaels or the unusual notrump), you can double to show at least 10 points, or you can cuebid one of their shown suit(s) to force to game.

1S - (2S) - 3H = game force.
                 - Double = at least 10 points, probably balanced.

Slam bidding:

Blackwood 4NT is used to ask for aces. Responses show the number of aces by steps. 5NT is then used to ask for kings; 5NT guarantees the partnership holds all four aces.

A jump to 5NT (and some 5NT bids when the auction is at the five level) is "Grand Slam Force", asking partner to bid a grand slam with two of the three top trump honors;

5NT - 6 of the trump suit = fewer than two top trump honors (A, K, or Q).
        - 7 of the trump suit = two of the three top trump honors.

Defensive leads and signals:

This is the one area where choices are offered. The following are specified: Defensive signals when following suit or discarding are "high encourages, low discourages." Leads are top of touching honors (with choices from AKx and interior sequences).

Pairs must choose from the following options. Where no card is pre-marked in bold italics, pairs must mark their leads.

  • Which card is led from AKx.
  • Which card is led from xxx, xxxx or xxxxx.
  • Whether 4th best, or & 5th best leads are used.
  • Whether 3rd best is led from KJ10x, K109x, or Q109x, (and from AJ10x or A109x versus NT). Must be indicated by circling the card led.
  • Whether or not frequent count signals are given.

It is Declarer's responsibility to look at opponents' carding agreements. In the absence of a circle, cards in bold italics are presumed to be the agreement.

Edited by Woody from several documents found on Internet for Bidding Quest