Normally open five-card majors in all seats.
Open the higher of long suits of equal length: 5-5 or 6-6.
Normally open 1D with 4-4 in the minors.
Normally open 1C with 3-3 in the minors.
Notrump openings show a balanced hand and can be made with a five-card major or minor suit.

Strong artificial 2C opening.
Weak two-bids in diamonds, hearts and spades.

This look almost the same as SAYC and the difference are the 1NT-forcing bid after major, 2over1 style and more conventions.

Responses to 1C / 1D
Responses to 1H / 1S
Further after opening on 1-level
Responses and later bidding after a 15-17 opening
2C opening, responses and later bidding:
Sequence after a weak two-bid of 2D,2H or 2S
Responses to 2NT:
Responses to 3C,3D,3H,3S,3NT:
Defensive bidding
Competitive bidding
Slam bidding

Responses to 1C / 1D

A 1D opener suggests a four-card or longer suit, since 1C is preferred on hands where a three-card minor suit must be opened. The exception is a hand with 4-4-3-2 shape: four spades, four hearts, three diamonds, and two clubs, which should be opened 1D.

Further to inverted minor.

Responses to 1H / 1S

1H and 1S openings show a five-card or longer suit.

Bergen is a popular convention used to show 4+ support in the opening suit.
- 3C: 6-9 HCP
- 3D: 10-12 HCP
- 3 in opening suit: Pre-empt. Less than 6.

Further to 1NT forcing bid.

Rebids by opener: 

  • rebid major with 6 cards in suit (occ. 5 cards with 4 spades, 5 hearts, no 3-card minor) 
  • bid lower 4-card major 
  • a higher suit is a REVERSE BID; see below 
  • bid a 3-card minor; bid clubs over diamonds 
  • other bids fairly obvious

Rebids by 1 NT bidder: 

  • jump to 3 of major -- 10-12 points, exactly 3 cards in suit (compare to limit raise below) 
  • new suit is shutout -- weak, long in suit (compare to directly bidding suit) 
  • pass or bid 2 of major is simple preference, expecting to be passed by opener

Further to 2over1 bids:

The 2over1 bid is game forcing except when the responder rebids his minorsuit that show and invitational hand with long 6+card suit and 10-12 points.

Further to 2NT Jacoby.

  • 3 of new suit shows singleton or void 
  • 4 of major -- shutout in game, no slam interest 
  • 3 of major -- stronger than 4 of major, possible slam interest, responder should cue-bid ace or void

The responder bids 4 in the opening suit with no extra values in his second bid.

Reverse Drury: 
When using this convention, a 3rd- or 4th-position major opening bid can be very light (8+ points non-vulnerable, 10+ points vulnerable), provided that opener has tolerance for the higher suits. (Note: in 4th position, opener should just pass out the hand with a weak hand unless he has spades). Given this state of affairs, responder, with a decent passed hand, can bid 2C over a major opening to inquire whether this opening is normal or light. 2D indicates a STRONG opening, any other bid shows a light opening. (i.e. bid 2 of major, or bid 2H after 1S with 4 hearts). 

After the 2D bid, keep in mind that responder is a passed hand, so his bids are not forcing. Simple raise of opener's suit is not as strong as jump raise, etc.

Further after opening on 1-level

Opener's rebids are natural and standard except the New Minor forcing after 1x-1y-1NT.

Rebids with a minimum hand (13-16 points):

Rebids with a medium hand (17-18) points:

With a maximum hand (19-21 or 22 points) opener must make a very strong rebid:

Subsequent bidding by responder:

If responder has bid a suit at the one level, he next determines whether he wishes to sign off in a partscore, invite game, sign off in game, or force to game and get more information about opener's hand. Having made his choice, he selects the best available bid.

Bids available for signoff in partscore: Pass, 1NT, 2 of a previously bid suit.

1H - 1S
2C - Pass, 2H, 2S = 6-10 points, signoff in partscore.

Bids available for inviting game: 2NT, 3 of a previously bid suit:

1H - 1S
2D - 2NT, 3D, 3H, 3S = 11-12 points, inviting game.

Second-round forcing bids. A new suit response (other than after a 1NT rebid by opener) is a one-round force. If it is a fourth suit in the auction, it may be artificial.

1H - 1S
2C - 2D = one-round force, could be artificial. 

1H - 1S
1NT- 2C, 2D = non-forcing. Responder must jump shift to 3C or 3D to force game.
Some also use new minor forcing in this position, but as a default you should use natural.

Second round forcing bids following a 1NT rebid by opener: The unbid minor at 2-level is artificial and show at least invitational strength. Thus a jump in the same suit at the 3-level is invitational and show (5) 6 card in the minor suit.

1C  -   1H
1NT -  2D: Artificial forcing. Works as a kind of Stayman. At least invitational strength.
          2S: Natural GF with 5+Seart and 4+Spades.
          3C: Invitational.

Bids available for signing off in game. 3NT, 4H, 4S, 5C, 5S.

Responses and later bidding after a 15-17 opening: 

2C is "non-forcing" Stayman, meaning that the bidding can stop in two of a suit. Opener bids 2H with 4-4 in the majors. If responder rebids three of either minor, he is showing slam interest and at least a five-card suit.

Jacoby transfers showing a five-card suit are used for the majors: 2D is a transfer to hearts, 2H is a transfer to spades. Opener accepts the transfer though he can jump to the three level with 17 points and four-card support for responder's major, for example:

  • 1NT -- 2D
  • 2H = normal acceptance of the transfer
  • 3H = 17 points and four-card heart support

If, after the transfer is accepted, responder bids a new suit, that is natural and game forcing. Possible calls after the accepted transfer are:

1NT - 2H
2S - ?
  • Pass: content to play 2S.
  • 2NT, 3S = invitational. Over 2NT opener can pass or return to 3S with a minimum hand; bid 3NT or 4S with a maximum.
  • 3C, 3D, 3H = natural and game forcing.
  • 3NT = asking for a choice between 3NT and 4S.
  • 4S = placing the contract, with a six-card or longer suit.

A 2S response requires the 1NT bidder to rebid 3C, which can be passed with a club bust, or responder can rebid 3C with a diamond bust. Example:

1NT - 2S
3C - ?

  • Pass = club bust.
  • 3D = diamond bust (notrump opener passes).

Other responses to 1NT:

1NT - ?
  • 3C, 3D = invitational to 3NT with a six-card or longer suit.
  • -- 3H, 3S = At least a six-card suit and slam interest (otherwise responder uses a transfer bid).
  • -- 4C = Gerber, asking for aces. 4C IS GERBER OVER ANY 1NT OR 2NT BID BY PARTNER INCLUDING A REBID OF 1NT or 2NT. Responses show the number of aces, by steps, just as over a Blackwood 4NT. (5C is used to ask for kings.)

A direct raise of 1NT to 4NT is natural and invites 6NT. 4NT is slam invitational only because 4C is available as Gerber.


Interference after 1NT opening bids:

If the opponents double, all conventional responses are "on." 

If the opponents bid over your 1NT opener, Stayman and transfers are "off." Bids are natural except for a cuebid, which can be used with game force strength as a substitute for Stayman.

If the opponents intervene over a conventional response, bids carry the same meaning as if there were no intervention. A bid says, "I'm bidding voluntarily, so I have a real fit with you."

2C opening, responses and later bidding:  

2C opening shows at least 22+ points, or the playing equivalent. Responses:

If opener rebids 2NT after a 2D response (showing 22-24 points), the same responses are used as over a 2NT opening:

If opener rebids a suit over a 2D response, the bidding is forcing to 3 of opener's major or 4 of opener's minor.

2C - 2D
2H - 2S
3H = not forcing.

Sequence after a weak two-bid of 2D,2H or 2S:

Weak two-bids show a six-card suit of reasonable quality and 5-11 HCP. On rare occasions it may be a very good five-card suit. It is possible to open a weak two with a poor seven-card suit (not good enough to open with at the three level). Responses:

  • A 2NT response is forcing, showing game interest. (This applies also if the opponents intervene with a double or a bid.) Opener rebids his suit with a minimum weak two (5-8 points). With a maximum hand opener bids another suit to show a "feature" (ace or king in that suit); lacking a feature he raises to 3NT and lets responder place the contract.
  • Any raise of opener's suit is to play and could be preemptive. A 3NT response is also to play.
  • "RONF" on the card means "Raise Only Non-Force." A new suit response is forcing one round and shows at least a five-card suit. Opener should raise a major suit response with a three-card fit, or perhaps with a doubleton honor.

With no fit for responder's suit, opener rebids:

  • With a minimum weak two-bid (5-8 points), rebid the suit at the cheapest level.
  • With a maximum weak two-bid, name a new suit or bid notrump.

Responses to a 2NT:

Stayman and Jacoby transfers for the majors are used.

2NT - ?
  • 3C = Stayman. (Puppetstayman as alternative)
  • 3D, 3H = Jacoby transfers to hearts and spades respectively.
  • 4C = Gerber.
  • 4NT = Inviting a slam in notrump.

Responses to 3C,3D,3H,3S,3NT:

Further to 3C/3D:

  • New suit at 3 level is forcing.

  • 3NT is to play.

  • 4 in opening suit is to play.

  • Jump to 4H/4S is to play.

Further to 3H/3S:

  • 3S after 3H is natural forcing.

  • 4C/4D is cue-bid, slam interest in the opening suit.

  • 3NT is to play.

  • 4 in opening suit is to play.

  • 4 in opposite major is to play.

Further to 3NT:

The responder is boss, and even if opponents doubles 3N, the opener should always pass and trust pd to do the right thing.

  • 4C: Ask the opener to pass with club or correct with diamond.

  • 4D: Ask the opener to pass with diamond or correct with club.

  • 4H/4S: To play.

Defensive bidding:

Overcalls show 8-16 points (double and bid the long suit with a stronger hand). The only forcing response is a cuebid of opener's suit, asking the overcaller about the quality of his overcall:

(1D) - 1S - (Pa) - 2D
(Pa) - 2S = minimum overcall.
         - other = extra strength (11 or 12 points minimum).

A 1NT overcall shows 15-18 points and a balanced hand (preferably a stopper in opener's suit). No artificial responses are used to the 1NT overcall except 2C, which is Stayman.

A jump overcall of 2NT shows at least 5-5 in the lower two unbid suits.

Jump overcalls are preemptive, showing the same values as an opening bid at the same level:

(1D) - 2S = a hand that would open a weak two-bid in spades.
       - 3C = a hand that would open 3C.

A cuebid overcall when the opponents have bid two suits is natural in either suit.

A cuebid overcall, when the opponents have bid only one suit, is a Michaels cuebid, showing a 5-5 two-suiter (or more distributional).

Reopening bids mean much the same as direct seat bids, though they can be lighter at the minimum end. A reopening 1NT after an opponent has opened shows 10-15 points. This is a wide range but there will not usually be a game on for you.

Doubles are for takeout over opening partscore bids (4 D or lower); penalty over opening game bids (4H or higher). A below-game jump response to a takeout double is invitational. To force, responder cuebids opener's suit.

Versus opening preempts, overcalls in suits or notrump are natural; cuebids are Michaels.

Competitive bidding:

There is almost an endless variety of possible sequences, so it pays to have simple guidelines to prevent bidding misunderstandings:

Bids mean the same thing they meant without the intervening bid. However it is sometimes necessary to pick a bid that would normally have been a second choice without the overcall:

1D - (Pa) - 1S - (2C)
2S; with  J43, A875, AQJ4, J3 (rebid 1NT if RHO has passed).

Cuebidding RHO's suit shows values for game without clear direction for the moment. This is often used to show a game-forcing raise:

1S - (2C) - 3C = game force; usually a raise.

Negative doubles are used through 2S promising four cards (at least) in any unbid major. Bidding a major at the two level or higher shows 11 or more points and a five-card or longer suit.

  • 1C - (1D) - Double = 4-4 or better in the majors.
  • 1D - (1H) - Double = exactly four spades (1S promises five).
  • 1D - (1S) - Double = four hearts and 6+ points or five hearts and 5-10 points.

If RHO makes a takeout double:

1D - (Do) - 1H, 1S = forcing, point count not limited.
                 - 2C = non-forcing (6-10 points, usually a six-card suit).
                 - 2NT = limit raise (at least 10 points) -- or better.
                 - Redouble = 10 points or more, but it is better to make a more descriptive bid of 1H, 1S, or                    2NT with the appropriate hand.
                 - 3D = Preemptive, good trump support but fewer than 10 points.

A responder's jump shift after a double is to play:

1D - (Do) - 2H, 2S, 3C = six-plus-card suit, like a weak two-bid or preemptive three-bid.

A redouble can have one of three meanings:
To play if:

  • Your side is at the four level or higher: 4S - (Do) - Redouble = Penalty:
  • The opponents double an artificial bid: 1NT - (Pa) - 2D - (Do) - Redouble = Penalty. good diamond suit;

A good hand if their double is for takeout:

  • 1S - (Do) - Redouble = 10+ points;

SOS, requesting a different suit, if your side is doubled for penalty in a trump suit at the three level or lower:

1D - (Pa) - Pass - (Do)
Pa - (Pa) - Redouble = SOS, responder can support at least two of the unbid suits.

Unless otherwise noted elsewhere, any bid or double by the opponents cancels a convention intended for non-competitive sequences.

1H - (1S) - 2NT = Natural (12-14 HCP).
2C - (Do) - 2D = Natural and Positive.

If the opponents use a convention (such as Michaels or the unusual notrump), you can double to show at least 10 points, or you can cuebid one of their shown suit(s) to force to game.

1S - (2S) - 3H = game force.
                 - Double = at least 10 points, probably balanced.

Slam bidding:

We use both ordinary Blackwood 4NT and Romen Key Card Blackwood.
When 4NT was invitational, and pd has extra values, he respond as 4NT was Blackwood. Responses show the number of aces by steps. 5NT is then used to ask for kings; 5NT guarantees the partnership holds all four aces.

If a suit is agreed to, or the last bid before 4NT was natural, then we use RKC-Blackwood. The trump king is the 5th ace and we can also inquire for the trump queen.
- 5C: 0/3 aces. (lowest suit except in trump are asking for trumpqueen).
- 5D: 1/4 aces. (lowest suit except in trump are asking for trumpqueen).
- 5H: 2 aces and no trump queen.
- 5S: 2 aces and trump queen.
5NT from the 4NT bidder is grand slam invitational and show that all key card are accounted for. 

A jump to 5NT (and some 5NT bids when the auction is at the five level) is "Grand Slam Force", asking partner to bid a grand slam with two of the three top trump honors;

5NT - 6 of the trump suit = fewer than two top trump honors (A, K, or Q).
        - 7 of the trump suit = two of the three top trump honors.

Defensive leads and signals:

This is the one area where choices are offered. The following are specified: Defensive signals when following suit or discarding are "high encourages, low discourages." Leads are top of touching honors (with choices from AKx and interior sequences).

Pairs must choose from the following options. Where no card is pre-marked in bold italics, pairs must mark their leads.

  • Which card is led from AKx.
  • Which card is led from xxx, xxxx or xxxxx.
  • Whether 4th best, or & 5th best leads are used.
  • Whether 3rd best is led from KJ10x, K109x, or Q109x, (and from AJ10x or A109x versus NT). Must be indicated by circling the card led.
  • Whether or not frequent count signals are given.

It is Declarer's responsibility to look at opponents' carding agreements. In the absence of a circle, cards in bold italics are presumed to be the agreement.

Edited by Woody from several documents found on Internet for Bidding Quest